The K-Dog Mark V is a magnificent machine! It has literally saved our lives on multiple occasions, and most recently was essential in the defeat of the legendary Morgana! The foul witch had broken the anti-gravity system and one of our turrets, and I fixed it with great skill! Let me tell you about the anti-gravity system.
There’s no way to set up a uniform gravitational field in a region of space, either, like you can between the parallel plates of an electrical capacitor. The reason? Because unlike the electric force, which is generated by positive and negative charges, there’s only one type of gravitational “charge,” and that’s mass-and-energy. The gravitational force is always attractive, and there’s simply no way around that.
(Author note- The following are excerpts from articles on Anti-gravity- credited at the end- none of it is my work)
But if you have negative gravitational mass, all of that changes. If antimatter actually anti-gravitates, falling up instead of down, then gravity sees it as though it were made of anti-mass or anti-energy. Under the laws of physics that we currently understand, quantities like anti-mass or anti-energy don’t exist. We can imagine them and talk about how they would behave, but we expect antimatter to have normal mass and normal energy when it comes to gravity.
Tesla’s Dynamic Theory of Gravity (1897) states that all bodies emit microwaves whose voltage and frequency are determined by their electrical contents and relative motion. He measured the microwave radiation of the earth as being only a few centimetres in wavelength. He said that the frequency and voltage were influenced by the velocity and mass of the earth, and that its gravitational interaction with other bodies, such as the sun, was determined by the interaction of the microwaves between the two bodies.
If you find the concept of producing a driving force through pushing against the space-time continuum to be difficult to accept, then perhaps you should consider the US Patent granted to Boris Volfson on 1st November 2005. The important thing about this patent (which is crammed full of long words) is not whether or not it presents a realistic mechanism for a practical space drive, but the fact that the US Patent Office in the year 2005, granted the patent after what presumably was careful consideration. With that in view, it is hardly possible to consider Tesla to have been totally confused when he designed (and built) his “electric flying machine” which operated by pushing against the space-time field.
Tesla used high voltage at gigahertz frequencies for his electropulsion system. The propulsion of a vehicle powered by a Tesla drive is by the use of an additional AC generator at the back (which stiffens the space-time continuum behind the vehicle) and a DC ‘brush’ generator at the front (which weakens the space-time continuum in front, causing the vehicle to be pulled forwards).
Tesla was very astute. He deduced that ’empty space’ actually contained:
1. Independent carriers which permeate all space and all matter and from which all matter is made. These carry momentum, magnetism, electricity or electromagnetic force, and can be manipulated artificially or by nature.
2. ‘Primary Solar Rays’ (starlight) which travel at the speed of light, having frequencies far above X-rays, gamma and UV radiation.
3. ‘Cosmic Rays’, particles in space propelled by the Primary Solar Rays.
4. X-rays, Gamma rays and UV electromagnetic waves, all of which travel at the speed of light.
5. Ordinary visible and Infra-Red electromagnetic waves which travel at the speed of light.
6. Rapidly varying electrostatic force of enormous potential, emanating from the earth and other gravitational bodies in space.
When we grasp the actual nature of the universe, it becomes clear that we have a much larger range of opportunities for producing usable energy in large quantities and at minimal cost.”
Usually science describes the four fundamental forces as:
1 — Electromagnetic force
2 — Gravitational force
3 – Nuclear strong force
4 – Nuclear weak force
This is an incomplete list since it has already been proven that there exists one additional fundamental force: Antigravity, This force was discovered by astrophysicists in 1998 in the sequence of astronomical observations that could only be explained if this new force existed (Glanz, 1998) . Thus, the existence of this force has been verified by direct observation. It is generated by the vacuum itself due to its state of high stress.
The antigravity force of the vacuum is well known in Astronomical circles (Grδn, 1986, 2009; Magueijo/ 2003) . The state of stress in the vacuum is usually described with the analogy of two forces pulling in opposite directions and therefore generating a stress. As it is known, according to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, there are always electromagnetic waves being created and destroyed in the vacuum of space. These electromagnetic oscillations are always created by pairs in opposition, in such a way that the vacuum shows zero net energy. This fact is usually described as the potential source of an enormous quantity of energy. The vacuum looks like it doesn’t have any energy because the electromagnetic waves that it generates are all phase cancelled by other waves in such a way that the final observable result is zero, remaining no observable energy to see. However, the vacuum possesses, at any time, an incredible quantity of electromagnetic fields in opposition and this is the source of its density and high stress or tension.
According to Grδn (1986) the gravitational mass of the vacuum is negative. The total density of gravitational mass pG is given by:
The term on the right represents the components of the energy-momentum density tensor, where T0 3 is the energy density and Ti, τ| and τ| are stress components. The energy density is always positive but the stress components can be positive or negative; T^<0,>0 corresponds to stretched states or a negative pressure.
Equation (1) shows that systems with an extremely large negative pressure or positive tension can have negative gravitational mass density. Generally, a high negative pressure or stretched state wall produce a gravitational repulsion force. On the other hand, a positive pressure or compressed state will produce a gravitational attractive force.
According to the Friedman models of the universe, which are solutions of Einstein’s field equations describing an expanding isotropic universe filled with perfect fluid, the fluid (vacuum) is described by an energy-momentum tensor of the form (Grδn and Hervik, 2007; Grδn, 2009) :
However, considering a vacuum polarization as a gas of virtual particles, Grδn (1986, 2009) and Grδn and Hervik (2007) showed that the energy-momentum density tensor of the vacuum as a dominating term of the form: Tμv = P9μv =
PC2gμv ( 3 )
Where the energy density p of the vacuum appears as a cosmological constant, p is the pressure, and both imply the equation of state: p =-pc2, where c is the velocity of light. Since in hydrodynamic terms the pressure is given fry; P=~τr where τ is the tension; the vacuum is in a state of extreme tension because its pressure is large and negative due to having a high density p, and also due to the multiplying factor of c2. This is the reason behind the experimentally observed antigravity force of the vacuum observed by a team of astronomers (Glanz, 1998) . A tense vacuum will have a tendency to expand under the action of its own repulsive gravitation. On the other hand, radiation and mass in space will have a positive gravitational mass that will favor space contraction.
In the Casimir effect, some of the electromagnetic vacuum propagating modes (which are in opposition by pairs) are eliminated between two metallic plates (1 and 2) that are very near (figure l.a), where 3 represents a high vacuum density and 4 represents a low vacuum density) . Between the plates the vacuum density will be less than outside, and therefore the vacuum will also be less tense. The tenser vacuum that exists outside the plates will push them together, due to the negative gravitational properties of the vacuum as evidenced by equation (1) . This is a simple effect, experimentally proven by Lamoreaux (1997) and one can gain extremely useful insights from it, such as a better understanding of the origin of gravity and electromagnetic forces .
Electromagnetic forces can be explained by the vacuum stresses they produce. This is being developed in a new theory called “Fluidic Electrodynamics” which interprets all electromagnetic forces in terms of fluid hydrodynamics and a perfect fluid and tense vacuum. The nuts and bolts of this theory are not yet published in order to secure a patent for the resultant spinoffs before publication. Basically, this theory shows parallels between the equations of electromagnetism and hydrodynamics in such a way that it allows electromagnetic forces to be interpreted as having a hydrodynamic origin from the vacuum itself. In this case, the vacuum is treated like a perfect fluid (Gron, 1986, 2009) . Besides the interesting hydrodynamic analogy, the physical origin of the electromagnetic forces resides on the way electric charges and magnetic interactions alter the stress or tension of the vacuum in such a way to generate attraction or repulsion forces.
Let’s consider two positive charges. The oppositely directed or canceling electric field between the positive charges will increase the vacuum density and stress between them. Because the vacuum is tenser between the charges, the antigravity force generated by the vacuum in that region will force the two particles apart. This explains the physical origin of the repulsion force between equal sign charges (figures l.b) and l.c), where the + signs represent positive charges and the – signs represent negative charges) .
As we will see, electromagnetic forces and gravity can be perfectly explained by the antigravity force generated by stresses in the vacuum. The gradient of the vacuum stresses will determine the direction of the observed forces . These vacuum forces will always be repulsive. Attraction and repulsion will depend on the resultant vector of the total repulsive forces .
If we consider a positive and a negative charge, we can see that the electric field is increased between the charges and therefore the vacuum stress and antigravity force of the vacuum is lower between the charges than outside. In this case the charges will be impelled towards each other by this vacuum stress gradient (figure l.d)).
A moving charge generates a magnetic vector potential in its direction of movement. This vector potential is equivalent to the hydrodynamic velocity of the vacuum (Maxwell, 1861) . Magnetic forces can easily be explained in hydrodynamic terms has interactions of the generated vector potentials. Hydrodynamic currents attract if they are in the same direction and repel if they are in opposite directions. In this way, the attraction and repulsion force between currents and magnets can be explained in hydrodynamic terms. On a more fundamental level, this force can be attributed to how the (interacting) vector potentials alter the vacuum stresses. The magnetic vector potential A is always in the direction of the current I. In the case of two (steady state) parallel currents in the same direction, the vector potential of both currents is in the same direction (is not opposed) . This will lower the vacuum density and tension between the two currentsr generating an attraction force because the vacuum density is higher outside the currents (figure 2. a) on the left side). If the currents are parallel but in opposite directions, then the vector potential will tend to cancel between the currents, due to the oppositely directed vectors. This oppositely directed field will increase the vacuum density and tension between the currents and the vacuum antigravity force generated between them will be higher than outside, therefore the currents will repel each other (figure 2. a) on the right side) . This explanation is also valid for magnets, since they have “equivalent surface currents” that generate the vector potentials and corresponding magnetic fields (figure 2.b) to 2.e), where N and S represent, respectively, the magnetic north and south poles, and A, represents the magnetic vector potential) . This forms a physical basis for the interpretation of magnetic forces in terms of vacuum stresses (figure 2) .
The important point here is that electromagnetic forces alter the state of tension of the vacuum which is reflected as attraction or repulsion, according to the vacuum density (tension) gradient. On this stance, the gravitational force can be attributed to vacuum stresses as well. We just have to look at how matter is made. It contains a concentration of positive charge in the center surrounded by circulating electrons with negative charge. This represents two concentrations of opposite charges in space that act like a “capacitor” (figure 3. a), where 5 represents a simplified atom, and 6 represents a mass agglomerate) . If we reconsider the earlier explanation for the electrostatic forces we see that attracting charges diminish the local vacuum stress (tension) between them. Therefore, atoms will electrically induce a lower vacuum density inside their structure, generating an attracting gravitational force towards them due to the surrounding vacuum stress gradient (figure 3.b), where 7 represents the mass of the Earth). The lower vacuum density in atoms also implies the existence of less electromagnetic allowed states, like also observed in the Casimir effect experiment, that are known to exist for the electrons that surround the nucleus. Atoms also contain opposing magnetic fields from the spin and movement of the charged particles that are responsible for the slight decrease in weight observed between an atom and its individual constituents. This happens because the opposing magnetism in atoms increases the vacuum stress but since magnetism has a much lower strength, in this case, than the existing electric fields, an attraction force towards atoms will be the resulting force.
It is known that a plasma does not allow the propagation of electromagnetic waves until a certain cutoff frequency is surpassed that depends on the plasma density and thickness (Laroussi and Anderson, 1998) . Therefore, the plasma is doing exactly what the parallel conductor plates in the Casimir effect did (figure l.a)). The vacuum density inside the plasma will also be lower, and it will induce a force on a nearby mass towards the plasma because of the vacuum stress gradient. This means that if we create a very high density plasma 8 (density and thickness have to be optimized) , we will generate a very strong gravitational pull towards this plasma (figure 3.c)). The plasma gravitational pull can be easily understood if we note that the plasma is made of a very high density charge concentration of both polarities. And, as explained in relation to figure l.d), attracting charges induce a low vacuum density between them.
Until now, the theory presented here could explain in simple terms the physical origin of electromagnetic and gravitational forces. They all derive from gradient stresses in the vacuum created by opposing or non-opposing electromagnetic fields. There exists a simple experiment that proves further the gravitational connection between vacuum stresses and electromagnetic interactions. This experiment was initially mentioned by Boyd Bushman (personal communication) , a retired engineer from Lockheed Martin. He repeated Galileo’s experiment of dropping two masses side by side and measured the time they took to fall. Boyd verified that when we drop two opposing magnets in one container and normal matter in a second container (of equal geometry) , the opposing magnets arrived latter than the normal mass. This experiment violates the equivalence principle and proves the relation between opposing fields, vacuum stresses and gravitational interactions. It can be easily verified by dropping opposing magnets trough coils connected to an oscilloscope, and then measure the falling time and compare to the falling time of simple magnets.
Author note- I will be adding a video that relates to most logs. This one is from Imagine Dragons